Is Citadel’s Hedge Fund a Harmless $35 Billion Minnow or a $235 Billion Killer Shark? (2022)

By Pam Martens and Russ Martens: February 23, 2021 ~

At the end of last Thursday’s 4-hour long hearing on the forces behind the wild trading in shares of New York Stock Exchange-listed GameStop, Congressman Jesus (Chuy) Garcia of Illinois asked Citadel hedge fund billionaire Ken Griffin how much money was managed by his hedge fund. Griffin replied: “We manage approximately $35 billion dollars of assets.”

Garcia than suggested that Citadel was systemically important. Since this might be construed to mean that Citadel should be under heightened regulatory oversight, Griffin quickly responded with this: “I believe that our hedge fund would not be in the category as systemically important. With $30-some billion of equity it is simply not at the scale or magnitude of a JPMorgan, Bank of America, Wells Fargo.”

To make a proper assessment as to whether Citadel is a little minnow swimming peacefully with the Dolphins or a predatory killer shark regularly looking for a fresh kill, it’s important to pay attention to what happened between Griffin’s first response and his second response. In the first response, Griffin said Citadel managed “$35 billion dollars of assets.” In the second response, he changed that to “$30-some billion of equity.”

According to the Form ADV that Griffin’s hedge fund, Citadel Advisors LLC, filed on January 15, 2021 with the Securities and Exchange Commission, his hedge fund is managing not $35 billion but $235 billionto be very specific, $234,679,962,503.


In a 2011 SEC final rule announcement, hedge funds were required to report “regulatory assets under management,” which includes not just the “equity” investors held in the hedge fund but the additional assets the hedge fund had purchased with borrowed funds – known as buying on margin. Hedge funds were also required to report assets held on behalf of foreign investors. Since hedge funds manage all of the assets they hold, and Congressman Garcia was clearly attempting to assess the size of Citadel’s systemic footprint in U.S. financial markets, it would have behooved Griffin to explain that the gross amount of assets his hedge fund was managing was actually 6.7 times the figure he had provided, that is, $235 billion not $35 billion. (Not to put too fine a point on it, but Griffin was put under oath, along with all other witnesses, at the opening of this hearing.)

Citadel’s hedge fund consists of a series of sub-funds that have varying investment strategies and asset classes including stocks, bonds and commodities. A Citadel hedge fund brochure that is also on file with the SEC explains how leverage is piled on: “The sub-funds generally invest on a highly leveraged basis, and the Funds may leverage their investments in the underlying sub-funds.”

According to Citadel’s Form ADV, a majority of its sub-funds that hold the largest amount of gross assets are organized in the Cayman Islands, a jurisdiction prized for its secrecy. Those include:Citadel Multi-Strategy Equities Master Fund Ltd. with $59 billion in gross assets; Citadel Equity Fund Ltd. with $25.7 billion in gross assets; Citadel Kensington Global Strategies Fund Ltd. with $17.3 billion in gross assets; and Citadel Quantitative Strategies Master Fund Ltd. with $8.3 billion in gross assets.

The SEC’s Form ADV asks the question: “What is the approximate amount of your total regulatory assets under management attributable to clients who are non-United States persons?” Citadel answers that more than $170 billion or 72 percent of its $234.6 billion of gross assets under management are foreign owned.

It’s difficult to assess what that actually means. Citadel’s hedge fund does indicate in its SEC filings that it has multiple foreign offices, so it could be managing assets for wealthy foreign individuals. But since it views its sub-funds as its clients and many are located in the Cayman Islands, that $170 billion could simply mean offshore sub-funds.

In addition to Citadel’s sprawling footprint in assets under management by its hedge fund, it is the largest market maker when it comes to retail trading in U.S. markets. According to Griffin’s opening statement at the hearing, Citadel Securities, the market-making arm of Citadel, “executes more trades on behalf of retail investors than any other firm.” Congressman Garcia asked if that represented 40 percent of all retail orders and Griffin didn’t dispute that figure.

Citadel Securities has captured that retail trading market by generous payments for order flow to at least nine online brokers. (See our report: Citadel Is Paying for Order Flow from Nine OnLine Brokerage Firms – Not Just Robinhood.) There is growing concern among lawmakers that Citadel Securities’ motivation in paying for this order flow is to be able to trade against unsophisticated retail traders, known as “dumb money” on Wall Street, in order to unfairly enhance its own bottom line.

The disciplinary history of Citadel Securities, unfortunately, aligns with that thesis.

On June 25, 2014, Citadel Securities was fined a total of $800,000 by its various regulators for serious trading misconduct. Citadel paid the fines in the typical manner, without admitting or denying the charges. The New York Stock Exchange alleged that the following had occurred:

“The firm sent multiple, periodic bursts of order messages, at 10,000 orders per second, to the exchanges. This excessive messaging activity, which involved hundreds of thousands of orders for more than 19 million shares, occurred two to three times per day.”

In addition, according to the York Stock Exchange, Citadel “erroneously sold short, on a proprietary basis, 2.75 million shares of an entity causing the share price of the entity to fall by 77 percent during an eleven-minute period.”In another instance, according to the New York Stock Exchange, Citadel’s trading resulted in “an immediate increase in the price of the security of 132 percent.”

On January 9, 2014, the New York Stock Exchange charged Citadel Securities LLC with engaging in wash sales 502,243 times using its computer algorithms. A wash sale is where the buyer and the seller are the same entity and no change in beneficial ownership occurs. (Wash sales are illegal because they can manipulate stock prices up or down.) Citadel Securities paid a $115,000 fine for these 502,243 violations and walked away. That’s less than 23 cents per violation.

On January 13, 2017 the SEC settled a case against Citadel Securities for $22.6 million in fines and disgorgements, alleging the following had occurred:

“…two algorithms used by Citadel Securities did not internalize retail orders at the best price observed nor sought to obtain the best price in the marketplace.These algorithms were triggered when they identified differences in the best prices on market feeds, comparing the SIP feeds to the direct feeds from exchanges.One strategy, known as FastFill, immediately internalized an order at a price that was not the best price for the order that Citadel Securities observed. The other strategy, known as SmartProvide, routed an order to the market that was not priced to obtain immediately the best price that Citadel Securities observed.”

More recently, on July 16, 2020, Citadel Securities agreed to a $700,000 fine by Wall Street’s self-regulator, FINRA, for executing customer orders at prices worse than it traded for its own account. Citadel Securities was allowed to neither admit nor deny the charges. The activities occurred over a period ofyears.

On November 13, 2020, FINRA fined Citadel Securities $180,000 for failing to mark 6.5millionequity trades as short sales. Citadel did not admit or deny the allegations but paid the fine. The activity occurred between September 14, 2015 and July 21, 2016, according to FINRA.

Citadel Securities previously owned a Dark Pool called Apogee. In 2014 Wall Street On Parade became curious when we could not find basic information about this Dark Pool. We filed a Freedom of Information Act request with the SEC. We received a written response from the SEC telling us “we have determined to withhold records responsive to your request….” Less than a year later, Reuters reported that Citadel was shuttering Apogee.

Citadel’s hedge fund filings with the SEC also indicate that some of the largest banks on Wall Street, such as JPMorgan Chase, Goldman Sachs, and Citigroup, are its prime brokers – meaning that it is highly likely that they and other globally systemic banks are providing margin loans that have helped Citadel Advisors leverage its equity from $35 billion to $235 billion.

Congresswoman Maxine Waters, Chair of the House Financial Services Committee, has promised to hold two more hearings on the structure of Wall Street trading: one hearing with experts from various disciplines and one hearing with federal regulators.

Before those hearings occur, it will be critically important for members of this Committee to have a far better understanding of precisely how hedge funds, high frequency traders, Dark Pools, and federally-insured banks backed by taxpayers are interacting with the highly fragmented and non-transparent U.S. trading markets.


Is Citadel a good hedge fund?

Citadel's flagship hedge fund rallied 7% in April during turmoil, brings 2022 returns to nearly 13% Billionaire investor Ken Griffin's hedge fund wowed the industry with big outperformance in April, overcoming a brutal market rout and extreme volatility.

Is Citadel hedge fund in trouble?

Retail investors have been fighting this adversary from trying to bankrupt two of America's favorite companies. The hedge fund has been notoriously shorting AMC stock despite all talks of bankruptcy officially off the table since early 2021. Citadel is not stopping despite billions in losses.

How much money does Citadel have under management?

$78.2 billion Assets Under Management (AUM)

As of 9th May 2022, Citadel Advisors's top holding is 1,564,519 shares of Spdr S&p 500 Etf Tr currently worth over $707 million and making up 0.9% of the portfolio value.

What type of hedge fund is Citadel?

Citadel LLC (formerly known as Citadel Investment Group, LLC) is an American multinational hedge fund and financial services company. Founded in 1990 by Kenneth C. Griffin, it has more than US$50 billion in assets under management as of May 2022.

Are hedge funds safe?

Hedge funds are riskier investments because they are often placing bets on investments seeking outsized, shorter-term gains,” she says. “This can even be with borrowed dollars. But those bets can lose.” Hedge funds take on these riskier strategies to produce returns regardless of market conditions.

Is Citadel a fiduciary?

That being said, the firm is bound by fiduciary duty, meaning it is obligated to act in clients' best interests at all times. In February 2021 Citadel officials were summoned to testify before Congress, as were other financial executives, regarding the GameStock short squeeze.

How is Citadel hedge fund doing?

Ken Griffin's Citadel scored a 7.5% return for April in its main hedge fund even as U.S. stocks posted their worst performance in decades. The $50 billion firm's Wellington fund is up 12.7. % so far this year, making money in all five of its main strategies, according to a person familiar with the matter.

What happened at Citadel hedge fund?

The founder and chief executive of hedge fund Citadel on Thursday criticized the pack of individual investors who collectively orchestrated a colossal short squeeze on GameStop shares in early 2021 for helping "wipe out the pension plans for teachers" in what wound up becoming a fatal moment in the life of Gabe ...

How much does Citadel owe?

Citadel Pulls $2 Billion From Gabe Plotkin's Melvin Capital

Melvin Capital lost $6.8 billion in January of 2021 and has not been able to get…

What is the most prestigious hedge fund?

Bridgewater Associates

Bridgewater is the world's largest hedge fund, with about $150 billion in capital. Since its founding in 1975, Bridgewater has returned $52.2 billion in gains to its investors – more than any other hedge fund on the planet.

What are the risks of hedge funds?


How much do Citadel traders make?

How much does a Trader at Citadel make? The typical Citadel Trader salary is $167,504 per year. Trader salaries at Citadel can range from $88,847 - $211,687 per year. This estimate is based upon 41 Citadel Trader salary report(s) provided by employees or estimated based upon statistical methods.

Who invests with Citadel?


Is BlackRock bigger than Citadel?

BlackRock's brand is ranked #602 in the list of Global Top 1000 Brands, as rated by customers of BlackRock. Their current market cap is $108.30B. Citadel's brand is ranked #701 in the list of Global Top 1000 Brands, as rated by customers of Citadel. Their current valuation is $33.61M.

Is it a good idea to invest in hedge funds?

Hedge funds offer some worthwhile benefits over traditional investment funds. Some notable benefits of hedge funds include: Investment strategies that can generate positive returns in both rising and falling equity and bond markets. The reduction of overall portfolio risk and volatility in balanced portfolios.

Are hedge funds evil?

Hedge Funds Explained - Are They Evil or Just Incompetent? - YouTube

Can a hedge fund lose your money?

Hedge funds engage in complex and risky investments, including options and derivatives. And they often use leverage or borrowing, which dramatically increases the risk of loss. Because of the enormous risks that hedge funds take, investors can lose their entire investment.

Are hedge funds legal?

In the United States, hedge funds can be legally marketed to investors that satisfy certain standards of sophistication. 12 In addition, hedge funds can be marketed to the general public, provided all purchasers are accredited investors and certain other conditions are met.

What is Citadel Wellington fund?

Citadel Wellington is a Hedge Fund in Illinois, that has raised $9.54B from 572 investors, for a fund started in Dec 2004. Data from SEC filing on 27 May 2022.

Is Merrill Lynch a fiduciary?

Through Merrill Lynch Fiduciary Advisory Services, our experienced and specialized Merrill Designated Advisors will work with you to help make your plan investment management more efficient and valuable .

How did Citadel make money?

Citadel is the largest U.S. retail market maker. Citadel makes money by keeping the difference between the bid and the ask price. While the difference is usually only a few cents, the cents add up when millions of orders are transacted every day.

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